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stylized as K 8 S is an open-source
container-orchestration system for automating
computer application deployment, scaling, and
management. It was originally designed by Google
and is now maintained by the Cloud Native
Computing Foundation. It aims to provide a
"platform for automating deployment, scaling, and
operations of application containers across
clusters of hosts". It works with a range of
container tools and runs containers in a cluster,
often with images built using Docker. Kubernetes
originally interfaced with the Docker runtime
through a "Dockershim". however, the shim has
since been deprecated in favor of directly
interfacing with the container through containerd,
or replacing Docker with a runtime that is
compliant with the Container Runtime Interface
(CRI) introduced by Kubernetes in 2016.
There are many cloud services offer a Kubernetes-based platform or infrastructure as a service (PaaS or IaaS) and you as a developer or administrator deploy Kubernetes. There are many cloud providers of software company provide their own Kubernetes distributions. In recent years Kubernetes became powerful technology became popular. Kubernetes is used as the base for the way you manage software deployments. Kubernetes has API-driven architecture sooner or later your organization would start adopting it, if they have not done yet.
progressively rolls out changes to your
application or its configuration, while monitoring
application health to ensure it doesn't kill all
your instances at the same time. If something goes
wrong, Kubernetes will rollback the change for
you. Take advantage of a growing ecosystem of
need to modify your application to use an
unfamiliar service discovery mechanism. Kubernetes
gives Pods their own IP addresses and a single DNS
name for a set of Pods, and can load-balance
mount the storage system of your choice, whether
from local storage, a public cloud provider such
as GCP or AWS, or a network storage system such as
NFS, iSCSI, Gluster, Ceph, Cinder, or Flocker.
and update secrets and application configuration
without rebuilding your image and without exposing
secrets in your stack configuration.
places containers based on their resource
requirements and other constraints, while not
sacrificing availability. Mix critical and
best-effort workloads in order to drive up
utilization and save even more resources.
addition to services, Kubernetes can manage your
batch and CI workloads, replacing containers that
fail, if desired.
of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses to Pods and Services
your application up and down with a simple
command, with a UI, or automatically based on CPU
containers that fail, replaces and reschedules
containers when nodes die, kills containers that
don't respond to your user-defined health check,
and doesn't advertise them to clients until they
are ready to serve.
features to your Kubernetes cluster without
changing upstream source code.
|The defining and using of functions – their rationale, purpose, conventions, and traps; the concept of passing arguments in different ways and setting their default values, along with the mechanisms of returning the function’s results; name scope issues; new data aggregates: tuples and dictionaries, and their role in data processing.|
Another good annual package, which is subscribed by user who are interested in more technology learning including Spark, Hadoop, Cassandra, Sacala and much more with below annual subscription, which include any two certification preparation material.
certification is organized by the Python Institute.
application are those one which runs in a single
process (e.g. in single JVM app) or small number of
processes spread across the few servers. At the end
of every release cycle, developers package up the
whole system and hand it over to the ops team and
they deploys and monitors it. And in case of any
hardware failure, the ops team migrates it to the
remaining healthy servers.
is to simplify the following tasks
Kubernetes is an open source orchestrator for
deploying containerized applications. It provides
the software which are required to successfully
build and deploy reliable, scalable distributed
systems. You can also sometime refer it as a
Software world you were initially working with the
Mutable software. Means you download the new
component of a software and install it on existing
software and that is known as mutable software
infrastructure. However, in case of immutable
infrastructure you download new image of a container
and replace the existing container with the newly
downloaded container. And there would not be any
|Answer: When you create a new image rather than upgrading the existing image it gives you an advantage that old image still available and you can quickly rollback if it is required. If you upgrade your existing binary then to rollback you have to remove newly installed binary from the existing one.|
In a very simple term I can say that it represent
how declarative way you can create any required
infrastructure and commit all these declaration
files in the source control system like defining a
template to create new infrastructure and whenever
you want to create new infrastructure specially in
the cloud env, checkout the template and use it
create the env. You can maintain all version of
templates and any time if it is required rollback,
use the previous version of the templates and
rollback the system.
Imaging you need 5 containers and one of the
developers manually start the sixth container then
Kubernetes will check and make sure one container is
destroyed. Because it needs only 5 containers.
Similarly, if one container is destroyed then
Kubernetes would make sure, it starts a new
Following are the common abstractions we can found in Kubernetes.
every public cloud provider (Azure, AWS, Google
cloud etc.) are providing managed
Kubernetes-as-a-service solution. However, cloud
provider operator has their own limitation for using
this Kubernetes clusters. Like any new feature of
Kubernetes may not be available immediately on KaaS,
as they have to maintain cluster for multiple
clients and it can create issue for having new
features as soon as it is available, they want to
test before providing on KaaS.
have to make sure your Kubernetes
applications/containers are not depending on any of
the cloud specific services like in DB AWS DynamoDB.
Keep it completely independent from cloud provider
Kubernetes is a platform for creating, deploying,
and managing distributed applications. However, it
also solves many other problems like Shared Library
Dependencies. You no more need to have shared
library which your application requires different
version and other application on same machine
require another version. You can ship the library
version which you want with your application as part
of container and no need to share with other
application on same machine.
Docker and Podman I know as of now.
is the place where once your image is built or image
building file e.g Dockerfile, you can keep it and
you can share with others as well. And whenever and
whoever required these images can pull it back and
use it. And also helps you to manage and deploy
private-images as well. And you can also use
image-builder services to provide integration with
continuous delivery system.
image is a bundle which include your program, and
its dependencies into a single artifact under root
file system. This also include some metadata which
is used by a container runtime to start a running
application instance based on the contents of the
As of this writing Docker image was most popular but
RedHat 8.0 onwards they want to reduce the Docker
monopoly and stopped supporting Docker and
supporting PodMan as a new image format.
container image is a binary package that
encapsulates all of the files necessary to run a
program inside of an OS container. You can create a
new container image or download one from the
container registry. Once you have the container
image you can run it to produce a running
application inside OS container.
You can use “docker” command to create Docker image.
This command can help you in packaging,
distributing, and running containers.
image is made up of a series of filesystem layers.
Each layer adds, removes, or modifies files from the
preceding layer in the filesystem.
you see Docker image it is not a single file but
rather a specification for a manifest file which
points to the other files. And both manifest and
associated files are considered as a single unit.
And this particular Docker image is created by a
series of filesystem layers, and each layer inherits
and modifies the layers before this.
Assume you have a Base Container classed ContainerA,
which just have base operating system like CentOS.
Now you have two applications one runs on Java7 and
Other on Java8 runtime env. You would fork the
ContainerA and create two separate container one for
Java7 and another for Java8 support. Like ContainerB
built upon ContainerA by installing Java7 and
ContainerC is build upon ContainerA by installing
Java8 on it. Now you need to install Oracle12C as
well which require Java8. Hence, you would fork
ContainerC and create new ContainerD on which you
can install Oracle 12C.
ContainerA (Base OS CentOS)
configuration files are always available with the
container and they provides instructions on how to
setup the container environment and execute the
application entry point. Which has information like
For Python developers, it turns out that there are
several certifications available. So, let’s take a
look at what’s out there to help decide if Python
certification could be good for your career.
The Most Popular (and Only) Python Certifications
The Python Institute is a training organization focused on sharpening the Python developer’s skill set. As such, they offer several certifications to demonstrate proficiency at different levels.
PCEP – Certified Entry-Level Python Programmer
As the name implies, the PCEP is the starting point to Python certification for newbies, previous programming experience optional. By the time you’re ready to test for the PCEP, you should have gained your footing in procedural programming concepts, as well as learned some Python specifics such as the language syntax and runtime environment.
Python Programming language is becoming the most demanding and useful computer programming language due to its simplicity and understanding features.
If we compare Python with other languages, python is more easily understandable and readable language. Python language has many vast applications in almost every technology sector like Data Science, Web Development, Gaming, Image processing, Data Analysing, Artificial Intelligence, etc.
Containers fall into two categories as below
can assume System Containers are somewhat similar to
virtual machines and often run a full boot process.
And often includes the system services like ssh,
cron, syslog etc. However, it is avoided to create
system containers now a days.
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